Check back often as this page will be updated as things change within the community!
(Associated github repos are linked)
Marlin (Non Gen 6): This is the firmware I recommend at the current time. You may also use Sprinter, as it has been the community firmware of choice for sometime and still widely used. And the last big firmware that you may want to look into is SJFW, this has the option for host-less printing (you still need a computer to create the g-code). But for my purposes, I will focus on Marlin as it is what I am using.
Printrun: This software allows you to interface with the 3D printer. You have two options when using Printrun. 1) Pronsole, a command line interface 2) Pronterface, a GUI driven interface (recommended).
SFACT: This is your slicing engine, it is a simplified version of Skeinforge. This piece of the software is used to "slice" (create the tool path for) your 3D models. To get printing with this you will only have to change at the most 5 or so parameters.
Life might be a bit easier if you set up git on your computers and clone into the appropriate repos. Github has a great walk-thru in doing so if interested.
Thanks goes out to all the great developers that created the software above and all other devs working on stuff coming down the pipeline. Without you guys we would still be in the 3D printing stone ages!